Interview with Professor Liang Donghui: “Diet Control = Eat Less and Drink Less”?
At present, diabetes is growing at a rapid rate in our country, and it has become one of the major diseases that seriously endanger the health of our people.
So far, diabetes can only be controlled but cannot be cured. The risks of complications such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and renal failure are more than ten times higher than normal people. Food therapy is the basis for treating various types of diabetes.
Therefore, understanding and changing bad dietary habits and staying away from misunderstandings are especially important for the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications.
To this end, we interviewed Professor Liang Donghui of the Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou Zhujiang Hospital, and put forward some new understanding and principled requirements for diet therapy for people with diabetes.
Experts interviewed: Liang Donghui, Deputy Director, Chief Physician and Professor of the Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University; Deputy Chairman of Guangdong Provincial Committee of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Cardiovascular Diseases; Standing Member of the Professional Committee of Deficiency Syndrome and Geriatrics of Guangdong Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Society.
Professional expertise: He has been engaged in clinical work for more than 20 years, and is mainly dedicated to the research on the prevention and treatment of cardio-cerebral vascular disease by integrated Chinese and Western medicine.
He has a wealth of medical theoretical knowledge and clinical practice experience, and has a deep understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of coronary heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, arrhythmia, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, refractory cough, kidney disease, senile deficiency syndrome and other diseases.
Presided over 4 provincial fund projects including Guangdong Natural Science Foundation, Provincial Science and Technology Plan Project, participated in the research of national fifteen key research topics, Finnish international cooperation topics, etc., and won the third prize of medical achievements and the second prize of teaching achievements.One, published more than 30 academic papers, published and edited 9 books.
Expert’s Hospital: Zhujiang Hospital Affiliated to Guangzhou Southern Medical University mentioned diet, diabetes patients may think less, they think: “diet control = eat less and drink less”, is this correct?
Professor Liang Donghui: This is one of the most common misunderstandings of patients with diabetes. As everyone knows, eating less and drinking less results in malnutrition, weight loss and malnutrition.
Once you have diabetes, people are often told to eat less and never eat sugar and sweet foods.
This sentence is almost the rule of diet for many diabetic patients. In fact, how can a diabetic diet be “less”? Diet control is not the same as eating less and drinking less. Instead, each individual should be calculated based on the individual’s body, activity status and illness.The appropriate intake of such foods should also pay attention to nutritional balance.
Some patients asked, “I only eat diabetic food, and if I want to buy it, I buy sugar-free and hypoglycemic food; oh, this fruit is a bit sweet and cannot be eaten.
“Does this help control blood sugar?
Professor Liang Donghui: Diabetics always think that their food is very special, and even eat separately from their families, so they lose much of the joy of eating and reduce the quality of life.
And they are passionate about certain diabetes health supplements and buy them at the first sight, thinking that if they take the supplement today, they can control their blood sugar tomorrow.
In fact, this is highly undesirable and not conducive to controlling blood sugar.
How to choose food as a diabetic?
We can borrow the memory of Chen Chaogang’s experts: 1) white water: hot and cold water, the more good; 2) rice noodles: clever mix, not a bowl; 3) vegetables: green, red, yellow, and white, eat more; 4) fruit: sugar区别 5) fish: fish is better than meat, meat is better than poultry; 6) eggs: one a day, just enough; 7) milk beans: once a day, you must not eat; 8) fat: one meal one spoon, pressThe amount is appropriate; 9) table salt: light diet, salted and not eaten; 10) miscellaneous: potato and mushrooms, eat a small amount; 11) nuts: peanut seeds, occasionally eat less; 12) candy: sweets,Till the end; 13) Deep-fried: deep-fried, not sticking at all; 14) Tobacco and alcohol: Quit smoking and alcohol, long life.
Some patients often say that their blood sugar is too high after breakfast, so they simply skip breakfast or eat less breakfast. They think that this can not only avoid the increase in blood sugar, but also lose weight. Is this okay?
Professor Liang Donghui: In fact, not eating or eating breakfast will not only control blood sugar, but also will not lose weight. Because without breakfast, blood glucose may be maintained at a low level in the morning. In this case, low blood pressure is very likely to occur.Glucose response, and more importantly, skipping breakfast will affect the regulation of insulin, which is one of the reasons why diabetes has difficulty controlling blood sugar.
On the contrary, having a good breakfast can help stabilize blood sugar and control weight gain.
If a diabetic patient does not eat breakfast, the source of blood sugar is reduced, and it cannot provide necessary energy for the body’s normal metabolism.
The body breaks down its own fat and converts it into blood sugar in the liver.
If fat is decomposed too much in the body, it will cause headache, weakness, etc. In severe cases, it may cause ketoacidosis.
If you do not eat breakfast for a long time, the protein in the body will be broken down and converted into blood sugar.
A large amount of protein is broken down, which will reduce the body’s disease resistance, which will induce complications such as infection.
Patients who do not eat breakfast are prone to hypoglycemia before lunch.
Hypoglycemia stimulates the body to secrete glycemic hormone, which causes blood sugar to rise.
Therefore, it is not advisable to reduce blood sugar without breakfast.
What common eating mistakes can you encounter in daily life?
Professor Liang Donghui: We can often see the following misunderstandings: 1) Peanut glycemic index is only 14, you can eat more.
We must not forget that half of the peanuts are fat. Such a high fat content and excessive eating will undoubtedly increase blood lipids.
2) Pumpkin glycemic index is 75, which cannot be eaten by diabetics.
3) Limit all high glycemic index foods.
4) Consumption of food with low glycemic index can reduce the dose.
In fact, the glycemic index is not the only way to choose food. Simply put, high-glycemic index foods are safe to eat less, and low-glycemic index foods should be eaten in moderation. The high and low glycemic index is not necessarily related to the postprandial blood glucose level.Moreover, it cannot replace treatment methods such as drugs and sports.
With so many misconceptions about the diabetes diet, what are the basic principles of the diabetes diet? Professor Liang Donghui: Our serious basic principles of diabetes are: two high, four low and one balanced.
That is high glucose, high cellulose; low salt, low sugar, low stool, low cholesterol; balanced protein.
The so-called two highs, four lows and one balance is a principle formulated under the predetermined conditions of scientific consumption. For example, high blood sugar is recommended to be a high percentage of all meals in a meal. It is by no means an advocate of eating ten.
The diet should be based on plant foods, supplemented by animal foods, and the total transformation of daily intake should be controlled.
At the same time we should pay attention to the following points: 1.
Control of total indicators: First of all, the daily total indicators should be limited to maintain the ideal weight or standard weight as the principle.
For a moderately active adult, the average daily dose required is 25 kcal per thousand body weight.
However, it is necessary to flexibly grasp the situation and activity of each patient, and appropriately increase the rate for adolescents, pregnant women, nursing mothers or people with other wasting diseases who are labor-intensive and growing.
For overweight and obese people, it should be reduced to achieve the purpose of weight reduction and treatment.
In short, it depends on the specific situation.
The ratio of the three major nutrients should be reasonable: people with diabetes are actually the same as healthy people. The main three nutrients are absorbed in trace amounts, and the ratio of protein and sugar should be reasonable. Otherwise, it will cause mutual conversion in the liver, a chemical plant, and consume a lot of energy.It is not cost-effective to consume transportation capacity like North Coal to South Transportation and South Grain to North Transfer.
So now the total transient is specified to be slightly 30% (25?
35%), protein accounts for 16% (10?
20%), sugar accounts for 55?
60% and even someone can reach 65%.
Too much protein is not good for diabetes. Clinical and experimental studies have shown that high protein diets can cause increased glomerular filtration pressure in patients, and patients with increased filtration pressure are prone to diabetes. Therefore, the American Diabetes Association recommends thatDaily protein intake is limited to 0 per kilogram of body weight.
At present, some patients with diabetic nephropathy also have one-sided knowledge and requirements of eating less food and eating high protein, especially for those who have diabetic nephropathy. This view should be corrected.
But for adolescents, pregnant women, nursing mothers, and the elderly, the restrictions on protein should be relaxed appropriately.
3．Restrictions on adults and hypertension: The current restrictions on the diet of adults with diabetes in the United States are consistent with the recommendations of the American College of Cardiology, that is, the daily adult amount cannot exceed 30% of the total daily dose, mainly unsaturated fatty acids.The daily plasma intake should not exceed 300mg.
Whether young or old, diabetic patients should not choose high-cholesterol foods such as egg yolk, paste, crustaceans and animal internal organs (especially heart, kidney, liver, intestine, brain).
Oils that are solid at room temperature, such as beef, pig, and sheep oil, contain more saturated fatty acids and should be eaten less; unsaturated fatty acids are vegetable oils, hard fruits, and poultry manure.
4．Limit the intake of sodium salts: Diabetics, like everyone else, should avoid excessive salt intake. Excessive intake of sodium salts can cause high blood pressure. Therefore, the American College of Cardiology recommends that the daily sodium salt absorption should not exceed 3g.
If you have high blood pressure, you should take 2g of sodium salt daily.
At present, most residents, including people with diabetes, eat too much salt (on average, about 10g per day), so people with diabetes, especially those with hypertension, should strictly limit the amount of salt.
5.Avoid easy-to-absorb sugar and eat high-fiber foods: sucrose, honey, various candies, desserts, biscuits, ice cream, soft drinks, etc., because absorption is fast, blood sugar is significantly increased, which is not good for people with diabetes.
And cellulose in high-fiber foods such as beans, roots, green vegetables, cereals (rice, barley, wheat, oats, rye, corn) and fruits can significantly improve hyperglycemia, reduce insulin and oral doses,Slows sugar absorption and increases insulin sensitivity.
6.Eat less and eat more, increase the number of meals: This can reduce postprandial blood sugar and hyperglycemia, which is extremely beneficial for hyperglycemia control.
Sometimes people who do not respond well with simple medications can control their condition by dividing meals.